Software testing is a challenging career that needs a good analytical and communication skill set. The field has good career growth. Testing covers both manual and automation where manual involves more understanding of the process at its initial state and applying the various testing techniques for testing the given web or mobile application. Whereas automation needs good code knowledge. Here in this article, we have cumulated the top 34 manual testing interview questions under different categories such as Basics, Domain knowledge, SDLC, STLC models, projects& challenges, situation-based.

Know the Basics 

A basic understanding of Testing terms like bug, priority, severity, and their types is much required. Some of the common types of questions in this category are,

1. What is software testing and its types?

Software testing isthe process/method of evaluating and verifying that an application(web/mobile) does what it is expected to do.Here the actual design/requirements should match that of expected.

2. What is a bug life cycle?

The bug life cycle involves different phases such as New, Open, Fixed, Retest, Verified, Reopen, Closed state

3. What is the difference between the priority and severity of bugs?

Priority of bug shows the urgency of the bug to be taken by developers Low, medium, High. The severity of bugs shows the measure of the impact a bug has on the application. It can be Low, minor, major, critical.

4. What are the major priority types?

Low, medium, High are the major priority types

5. What are the major severity types?

Low, minor, major, critical is the major severity types

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Domain knowledge

Software Engineering covers various fields like health care, banking, insurance, retail, etc., One may face questions related to the domain in which he will be expected to work. Basic domain knowledge is always required. For this knowledge on domains, either you can browse the specific domain-related interview questions or you can gain knowledge from those who are already working on that domain. If you are already working on the same domain, just refresh your knowledge and past experience.

Banking Domain:

6. What is Banking and its major types?

A bank is known to be a financial institution that functions to receive deposits and make loans for the general public. Banking is the act of performing the above activity. The major types of Retail Banking, Wholesale Banking, Relationship Banking.

7. What is BFSI?

BFSI stands for Banking, financial services, and insurance (BFSI) which is meant for providing a range of such financial products or services

8. What are the major types of accounts in banks?

The major types of accounts in banks are,

  1. Savings account.
  2. Salary account.
  3. Fixed deposit account. 
  4. Recurring deposit account.
  5. NRI accounts.

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Insurance Domain:

9. What is insurance domain?

The insurance domain deals with creating insurance policies and sell, administrate, and regulate them for the general public. It also deals with assisting and supporting people for claiming insurance. 

10. What are the major insurance types?

The major insurance types include auto insurance, Life Insurance, Motor insurance, Health insurance, Travel insurance, Property insurance, Mobile insurance.

11. What is insurance coverage?

Insurance coverage is the sum of risk or liability that is covered for an individual or any insured entity by any insurance policy

12. What is insurance claims?

An insurance claim is a request from the person who is insured to the insurance provider for a sum of money against losses covered under your insurance policy.

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Retail Domain:

13. What is retail domain?

Retail is defined as the sale of goods and services from individuals or businesses to its end-user. The retail industry provides consumers with goods and services for their everyday needs.

14. How to test a retail website? What are the major factors to consider?

A retail website should be tested from both end-user and business perspectives. Major factors to consider are,

  • Easy-to-use UI
  • Payment options
  • Product search
  • Discount options

15. What are the general challenges in testing a shopping site?

  • The retail website generally keeps changing in UI and business. Testing should follow an adaptive approach.
  • Payment will require a lot of testing effort and time
  • All combinations of checkout options should be tried and tested well.

See: How to Test Mobile Application Manually

HealthCare Domain:

16. What is Health care domain?

Health care is an industry of caring and serving people, especially for their health and well-being. This is a vast industry around the world

17. What is HIPAA?

Basically, HIPAA is a national standard to protect sensitive highly confidential patient public/ personal health information from being revealed without the patient’s formal permission.

18. How healthcare business process works?

The Healthcare business process comprises 5 important processes including hospital admissions and discharge and billing, emergency department (ED) operations, patient transfers to different facilities, medication administration, and patient flow.

19. What is the importance of Telehealth and its implementation?

Telehealth gains more importance especially during this pandemic situation it has helped many patients to reach their providers without taking the risk of visiting the clinic. It becomes important that the patient-physician relationship is maintained in any Telehealth platform following all HIPAA guidelines.

20. What is CPT code and its importance?

CPT (Current Procedural Terminology) provides the most widely accepted medical nomenclature used to report medical procedures and services for processing claims and other forms of healthcare documentation.

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Understanding of SDLC/STLC Models

SDLC – Software Development Life Cycle and Software Testing Life Cycle are the two pillars of software development and testing. A software tester should have a thorough knowledge of all the phases and models of SDLC and STLC. Especially Agile software development model is gaining more importance nowadays. Every project is trying to adapt the agile model in both its testing and development phases.  Some of the most frequently asked questions on this category are,

21. What is SDLC? Explain its phases and types.

SDLC stands for Software Development LifeCycle. It includes 5 phases – Requirement gathering, Designing, Coding, Testing, and Maintenance.

5 types of SDLC models are 

  • Waterfall Model, 
  • V-Shaped Model, 
  • Iterative Model, 
  • Spiral Model, 
  • Big Bang Model, 
  • Agile Model.

22. What is STLC? Explain its phases and types along with exit criteria on each stage.

STLC stands for Software Testing LifeCycle. It includes 5 phases – 

Requirement Analysis

Exit criteria: Requirement Traceability Matrix, Automation feasibility report. 

Test Planning

Exit criteria: Test Plan document, Effort Estimation document.

Test Case Designing and Development

Exit criteria: Test cases/scripts, test data creation, and update

Test Environment Setup

Exit criteria: Test Environment ready with test data set up

Test Execution

Exit criteria: Defect Report, Test case sheet updated with results

Test Closure

Exit criteria: Test Closure report, Test metrics, Testing effort graph

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23. What is the Agile model?

Agile is basically a combination of iterative and incremental processes. It mainly focuses on the adaptability of processes and customer satisfaction by rapid delivery of working software applications and facilitates continuous customer feedback on the product developed so far.

24. Explain the difference between Kanban and Scrum?

Kanban is a continuous working model whereas Scrum has only shorter, well-framed sprints

25. How much time a sprint can take?

Agile usually allows between 1 and 4 weeks for a sprint to complete. It depends on the process followed and Team size.

26. What are the primary roles in the Agile model?

Product owner, scrum master, and the Scrum team.

27. What are the advantages of the agile model?

Some of the advantages are Flexibility, Team Collaboration, quicker and Efficient release

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Previous projects & Challenges faced

Every experienced tester will face these types of questions. They should make their reply or reason based on their previous project experience. You can try to refresh your experience before facing the interview. Here are some basic questions that you may expect in this category:

28. What is one critical bug that you found when you tested the last project?

Here you can mention any bug which you found in your recent projects that have saved a lot of time and effort in later fix and would have made a greater effect on the business side.

29. What is one interesting bug that you could remember in your testing journey?

Here you can mention any bug in which you invested a lot of time to dig out and learned something new in your testing journey.

30. What is the crucial challenge that you faced with your customer?

Here you can mention any task that you were expected to do in a shorter span of time and which you have accomplished with utmost effort providing the best results

31. How will you deal with a production bug which is an absolute miss at the testing phase?

Though production bugs are serious, it’s so important that the source and the reason for the miss need to be found out. A hotfix needs to be patched up on the bug to resolve an efficient method of testing to be adopted in the future to not miss any critical bugs in the future.

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Handling critical situations & Teamwork

A Tester may face many crucial times within a team/outside team. There will be situations when you need to stand by your point and argue to win on your side. The interviewer may give scenario-based questions to validate your way of handling things and to keep it under control.

32. When some mistake is done by your co-worker leads to a production issue, how would you deal with it?

This is especially asked for testing your team handling skills. Whenever there raises a mistake done by a co-worker, it should be addressed in a polite manner. The focus should be on the fix for the items and framing the best testing strategy.

33. How would you manage when things go beyond the committed deadline?

Deadlines should be committed based on real-time estimation considering the availability of team members. Hence going beyond this deadline should not be frequent and should be intimated earlier. So that can be handled with any alternative or communicated to management and clients as required.

34. How would you handle it when your team member(s) doesn’t accept your point on an item which is actually right?

This is again testing your Team Collaboration and Communication skills. Here you can highlight any such incident where you stressed your point without making it a heated argument.

See: Software Testing Guide for Beginners to Advanced

Hope this article was helpful for those who are anticipating their next software testing interview. We have tried to cover most of the questions here. If you think any question which you faced in your interview is missed in the above list, please don’t hesitate to mention comments which might be helpful for others.